Summaries & Keywords

Studia Gilsoniana » Issues » 2018 » 7:2 (April-June 2018) » Summaries & Keywords

Steven Barmore, “To See a City Come into Being in Speech: Genus and Analogy in Plato’s Republic,” Studia Gilsoniana 7, no. 2 (April–June 2018): 159–179:

SUMMARY: An understanding of the philosophical genus contributes to the perfection of the act of the philosophical habit of the human soul because reality is constituted by a multitude of overlapping genera. Because genera are constituted by a multitude of species unequally related to their generic aim, St. Thomas’s teaching on virtual quantity facilitates an understanding of the diversity of being. Analogy is an act of judgment that expresses an unequally proportionate relationship between beings. Like genus, analogy has to do with a multitude of beings unequally related to a primary subject; as such, analogy is the language of philosophy. To see ‘a city come into being in speech’ in Book II of The Republic is to be trained to observe the relation between real beings, to make correct judgments about those relationships, and to thereby be properly oriented toward reality.

KEYWORDS: Plato, Aristotle, Aquinas, genus, species, virtual quantity, analogy, being.

 

Maria Joanna Gondek, “A Teleological Interpretation of the Applicability of Rhetoric in the Peripatetic Tradition,” Studia Gilsoniana 7, no. 2 (April–June 2018): 181–199:

SUMMARY: For Aristotle, the classification of the audience is the basis of distinguishing the main genres of rhetoric. Due to the auditor receiving political, judicial or educational content, there is a distinction into deliberative, judicial, and epideictic rhetoric. There are three more specific ends of rhetoric connected with the three basic types of auditors. Due to the communicative character of rhetoric, these ends are achieved against the background of the relation to the subject of the speech, referring to the decisions made by the auditor. Deliberative rhetoric is speech or writing that attempts to persuade an audience to take (or not to take) some action. The specific end of this rhetorical genre is good. Judicial rhetoric is speech or writing that considers the justice or injustice of a certain charge or accusation. Epideictic rhetoric is speech or writing that praises (encomium) or blames (invective). Persuasion in rhetoric happens because of a specific end: goodness, justice, nobility. Thus, the specific nature of the end of persuasion is taken into account. Perceiving the end against the background of the subject of persuasion allows one to develop a method. The method that determines the applicability of rhetoric occurs in the tradition of peripatetic rhetoric in a non-autonomous way, but is closely related to the end and to the subject of speech.

KEYWORDS: Aristotle, end, deliberative rhetoric, judicial rhetoric, epideictic rhetoric.

 

Rev. William McVey, “Aristotelian-Thomistic Teleological Behavioral Psychology Reconstruction,” Studia Gilsoniana 7, no. 2 (April–June 2018): 201–236:

SUMMARY: The article is based on Robert Kugelmann’s work, Psychology and Catholicism: Contested Boundaries. It examines the development of Catholic psychology as a history of defining boundaries within scientific empirical psychology from 1829 to the present. The author divides the historical period into three periods: One: Neoscholastic Rational Psychology (1829–1965); Two: After Vatican II Psychology (1965 to present); and Three: An Emerging Thomistic Rational Teleological Behavioral Psychology. The essay examines the development of Neoscholastic rational psychology as a response to modernist experimental psychology. The neoscholastic movement approached the new discipline of empirical, as opposed to rational, psychology with the firm conviction in the formulation of a meta-psychology, based on a Thomistic metaphysics that would allow for an eventual synthesis of rational and empirical psychology. However, a synthesis with empirical psychology never came to realization, mainly over the issue of the faculties of the soul as foundational for a science of human behavior. The author argues that, even to the present day, the best approach to entering into a trading zone (transitional genus) with the principles and methods of scientific psychology is by avoiding all expressions of past, present, and future introspective psychology and brain mentalism, and turning to a synthesis with teleological behavioral principles and Aristotelian-Thomistic faculties of the soul psychology.

KEYWORDS: rational psychology, teleological behaviorism, trading zone, introspection, experimental psychology, behavioral reconstruction, identity theory, pleasure and passionate behavior, overt behavior, insight-outsight behavior, habits of behavioral intensity, discriminative stimulus, narrow behavioral causality, wide behavioral causality.

 

Fernanda Ocampo, “El debate en torno al ‘argumento del intellectus essentiae’ y la ‘distinción real’ entre la esencia y el ser en el De ente et essentia de Tomás de Aquino / The Debate on the ‘Intellectus Essentiae Argument’ and the ‘Real Distinction’ between Essence and Being in the De Ente et Essentia by Thomas Aquinas,” Studia Gilsoniana 7, no. 2 (April–June 2018): 237–261:

SUMMARY: The so-called ‘intellectus essentiae argument’ has constituted one of the resources of some 13th century authors, to establish the ‘real distinction’ between essence and being in every creature. This argument is also present in Aquinas’ De Ente et Essentia, a work in which, the philosopher is believed to have tried to demonstrate the ‘real distinction or composition’ as well. Now, it is precisely the meaning and scope of this argument regarding the demonstration of the ‘real distinction’ in Thomas’ argumentation that has been object of recent debate among specialists. In this sense, we intend in this article to first expose the argument in the context of the work to which it belongs, then concentrate on the opinions of the different commentators, and finally outline our conclusions based on the interpretations we consider the most accurate.

KEYWORDS: Thomas Aquinas, real distinction, intellectus essentiae argument, De ente et essentia, essence, being, metaphysics, Thomism.

 

Melissa Salisbury, “The Person in Relation: An Analysis of Great Catholic Education via Thomistic Personalism,” Studia Gilsoniana 7, no. 2 (April–June 2018): 263–291:

SUMMARY: The author shows the usefulness of the philosophy of Thomistic personalism in determining the type of education most beneficial to the human person’s highest development by building on St. Thomas Aquinas’s idea of personal relation according to both the first act-esse and the second act-operari. Because the richness of this philosophy involves the use of Thomistic metaphysics and metaethics, anthropology, political philosophy, phenomenology and aesthetics and is meant to be applied (as in Pope St. John Paul II’s theology of the body), the author helps discover a unique and fitting tool by which Catholic education may be considered and planned for based on what is most fundamental to the human person’s reality—the act of his existence and subsequent personalistic act, according to truth and love. The author also presents a selection of real applications included in such an approach to the person in relation.

KEYWORDS: Thomistic personalism, first act, second act, esse, operari, act of existence, personal relation, transcendentals, principles of knowledge, truth, love, goodness, beauty, Catholic education, liberal arts education, metaphysics, metaethics, evangelization.

 

Alexandra Cathey, “The Feminine Genius According to Edith Stein,” Studia Gilsoniana 7, no. 2 (April–June 2018): 295–337:

SUMMARY: The term feminine genius denotes a special intuition and sensitivity of a woman that helps her not only ascertain the needs of others but also empathize with the human condition in a way characteristic only of women. The article attempts to answer questions concerning the feminine genius, such as the following: What is spiritual motherhood? What is spiritual companionship? How can women express the qualities of companionship and motherhood in and out of their homes? What kind of obstacles do women need to root out of their hearts to build loving relationships? And, How does emotional formation prepare women for their vocation? The answers are sought from Edith Stein’s perspective, i.e. by drawing from the usage of phenomenology and Thomism adopted in her book, Essays on Women.

KEYWORDS: woman, feminine genius, Edith Stein, culture, society, mother, wife, family, husband, children, vocation, spiritual motherhood, spiritual companionship, fenimism, working woman, religious woman, love, God, self-gift, relationship, emotional formation, value, phenomenology, Thomism.

 

J. Marianne Siegmund, “Silence and the Audibility of the Word: Contemplative Listening as a Fundamental Act of the New Evangelization. Part 3: Christ Reveals Man to Himself on Calvary,” Studia Gilsoniana 7, no. 2 (April–June 2018): 339–354:

SUMMARY: In the third part of her arguing for contemplative listening as a fundamental act of the new evangelization, the author shows that the concrete place where the anthropological and theological dimensions of listening converge is at the foot of the Cross. Man discovers the truth of his being as silent listener in his encounter with Christ by standing with Mary under the Cross, which is the place where, with her, he participates most fully in Christ’s eternal beingas Listener; as such, he becomes a participated revelation of that act, thus making Christ audible to the world in what thereby becomes the basic exercise of the new evangelization.

KEYWORDS: Jesus Christ, listening, silence, Mary, Mother of God, new evangelization, contemplation, Calvary, Christology, Mariology.